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Stratum plus. 1999. № 4

Sharov O. V., Bažan I. A. (St.-Petersburg, Moscow, Russia)

Chernyakhov Etudes

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Pages: 19-65

The phenomenon of appearance of the Chernyakhov potter’s ceramics has been discussed more than once in the Russian and foreign literature. The works of Tihanova M. A., Diakonu G., Magomedov B. V., Gudkova A. V.,Krapivina V. V., Baran V. D. allowed different interpretations of solving of this problem. In our opinion, while the questions of appearance of the Chernyakhov pottery were being worked out two important moments have been missed. Firstly, ceramics was considered in the whole cultural aggragate without taking into account morphological peculiarities of each chronological stage of the culture. We think that to solve the problem one can consider the ceramics of the earliest level of the Chernyakhov culture only. Secondly, the question of appearance of potter’s trade in the Chernyakhov culture was not always separate from the question of appearance of the forms of ceramics. In our opinion, potter’s trade could appear in the area of the Chernyakhov culture not necessarily with its creators but separately and even from different potter’s centers in different periods of time. We think that the forms of the Chernyakhov ceramics should not be searched only in cultural unities that had potter’s wheel. Cultures that had no pottery in the synchronous time and earlier periods of time should be used for the analysis. We have done the classification of the ceramics of the early stage of the three illustrative burials of different regions of the Chernyakhov culture – Rujichanca, Cosanovo and Dancheni. Two leading types represented on the early level of the monuments synchronous to them have been selected. The first type is Schaleurnen with the distinct neck. The second type is Schaleurnen with the roller on the torso. We have examined the ceramics of the European Barbaricum that is synchronous to the early stage of the Chernyakhov culture (C1-beginning C2). The analysis of the ceramic production of the Weilbark and Przewor cultures, of the culture of  Poyaneshti-Vertishkoi, of the culture of free and Roman Dacians, of the culture of the Carpathian mounds, of the cultures of the region between Rhine and Vistula has given curious results. The first type of the vessels, present in the early stage of the Chernyakhov culture is appearing with the beginning of the Roman time in the region of Elbe. Starting from this fact the ceramics of the first type could appear in the area of the Chernyakhov culture from the Rhine-Elbe region where the crockery was performed in the moulded art. The second type of the crockery is spread in the region of the Middle Elbe a little later, not earlier the boundary of the phases of C1-C2. Summing up, it should be stated that the ceramics of the two examined types could have spread from one cultural region-that of Elbe first of all of Thuringe. It can be assumed that these revealed links of the regions can be quite connected with the migrations of one of the Eastern-Germanic tribes-Burgunds that together with Goths participated in the raids of the III century to Rome.



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