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Stratum plus. 2005-2009. №2

B. Govedarica (Berlin, Germany)

Stone Cross-Shaped Mace-Heads of the Copper Age of South-Eastern and Eastern Europe

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Pages: 419-437

The article is devoted to the typological, chronological, spatial and contextual analysis of specific stone mace-heads which were distributed in the Copper Age across the territory of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe from the Carpathian Basin to the Volga region and Caucasus. Four main types of mace-heads can be distinguished: Decea, Şard, Mariupol and Berezovka. The objects of the Decea type (11 pieces) are the most numerous and wide distributed but most of them are concentrated in Transylvania. Two objects of the Şard type are uncovered in Transylvania and Bukovina. The mace-heads of the Mariupol (2 pieces) and Berezovka (7 pieces) types are evidenced only in the steppe and forest-steppe zones of Eastern Europe east of the Lower Bug River. All of these finds can be atributed to the second phase of development of the Ohre-Grave Complex (Cucuteni A2-A3) stage. They can be considered as an element demonstrating the emergence of early ranked societies in South-Eastern and Eastern Europe.


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