E-mail Password Войти

English | Русский

Stratum plus. 2005-2009. №2

A. M. Hasanova (Baku, Azerbaijan)

A Study of Ancient Tin Bronze of Azerbaijan and Neighboring Regions

Access this article (PDF File)

<< Previous page

Pages: 507-512

In present work investigating problem of early appearance tin bronze, which revealing in archaeological excavations from monuments of Caucasus, Iran and Turkey. The problem of the origins of tin has long remained the subject of much debates. Those problem has been investigated by I.R.Selimkhanov, the study of historical and geological sources of the old world’s mains of tin deposits. On the basis of his research he considered the potential role of Southeast Asian tin for the ancient bronze metallurgy of the old world. Aim of this investigation is analytical study of old tin bronze wares and establishment place and date of early appearance tin bronze. Results of analysis some the oldest sample tin bronze wares were shown in lower following table. Analytical results shows, the oldest samples, which contains tin appearance in Iran and in Balkan dated IV millennium BC. In Near East in the middle IV millennium BC. J.R. Partington considered, that Sumerians know bronze the time of dated 3500 BC, but they come to Mesopotamia from the Far East. It is possible Sumerian metallurgy taken that trade -4000 BC. from the another tribes, which known, that possibility early.
Tin bronze appearance in Caucase some artifacts, in a copper-arsenic-tin alloys, dated 3000-2500 years BC. It is hook with 0,99 % tin, 1,5 % arsenic and 2,4 % nickel was excavated by I.G.Narimanov from the site of Babadervish in the Kazah area of Azerbaijan. I.R.Selimkhanov considered this artifact as an import, because it contain 2,4 % nickel, as there are no copper-nickel ore deposits in Caucasus. But there are ophiolit ores on the territory of Azerbaijan, which containing sometimes 5 % NiO. Therefore author considered, that artifacts may be from the local ores.
The earliest tin-bronze dating to the fourth millennium BC is recorded in Iran at Sialk and Susa. Tin bronze artifacts of the third millennium BC is discovered at various sites, including Tepe Yahya, for example the dagger whith 3,0 % tin, 1,1 % arsenic.
Tin bronze appearance in Dagestan and North Caucase in some artifacts dated end of the third millennium BC.
In the first half of the second millennium BC a number of tin bronze artifacts appearance in Georgia and Osetia. Tin became one of the major copper alloying during the first half of second millennium BC. Tin is often present in these artifacts together with varying combinations of lead, arsenic, antimoly and in some cases of zinc.
On the basic of our research and informations in geological literature about deposits tin in the Middle Asia (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan) and also around city Meshed in North –East Iran, where there are revealing the early meanings. Therefore thouse are the nearly places of tin, which came to Caucasus and also to Near East from the Iran.


Shopping Cart
Items: 0
Cart Total: 0,00 €
place your order

pdf version

student - 2,75 €
individual - 3,00 €
institutional - 7,00 €