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Stratum plus. 2016. No6

K. A. Rudenko (Kazan, Russian Federation)

Bulgar Ulus of the Golden Horde in Second Half of the Thirteenth — Early Fifteenth Century. A Historical and Archaeological Essay

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Pages: 107-149

The author employs archaeological evidence and 13th — 14th centuries written accounts to analyze the history of the Bulgar Ulus of the Golden Horde from its formation in the beginning of the thirteenth century to its disintegration in the beginning of the fifteenth century. Pursuing his research, he also recurs to numismatic and epigraphic data. Materials from hillforts, unfortified settlements and necropolises allowed tracking the changes in settlement structures and urban development. Also, he offers a reconstruction of administrative areas within the Bulgar Ulus with centers in big cities like Bulgar, Dzhuketau and Kazan. Besides, there was a special territory with nomadic population. The author considers distribution of various religions and nationalities living in this territory. Generalization of studies in material culture of the population of the Bulgar Ulus has allowed to present versatile lifestyles of the contemporary people — from trades to games and food. The Bulgar art of the Golden Horde time is characterized. Special attention is paid to the history of the capital of the Bulgar Ulus — the Bulgar City. The author comes to conclusion that coexistence of nomadic and settled societies was typical for the Bulgar Ulus, just like for a considerable part of the Golden Horde territory.

Keywords: Middle Volga Region, Volga Bulgaria, Golden Horde sites, historical geography, ethnic-cultural processes.

Information about author:

Konstantin Rudenko
(Kazan, Russian Federation). Doctor of Historical Sciences. Kazan State Institute of Culture. Orenburgsky Trakt St., 3, Kazan, 420059, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation
E-mail: [email protected]

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