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Stratum plus. 2017. No5

A. A. Peskova (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation)

On Traditional Manufacturing of Quadrifoil Encolpions in Russia

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Pages: 361-375

The author has analyzed two groups of pectoral quadrifoil crosses-encolpions cast from copper alloys in the workshops of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. She has traced creation of the first models and gradual transformation of their traditional manufacturing from the 13th to the 19th centuries. The first group of quadrifoils (Crucifixion with Bystanders — the Throne of Our Lady with the Infant) embraces four variants of models, according to which they were cast. The original model (variant I) was identified, as well as the supposed time of its creation: second quarter — middle of the 13th century; variants III and IV date to the same period; variant II seems to appear in the second half of the 13th century, or turn of the 13th — 14th century and exists until the 16 th — 17th centuries (with 23 known artefacts). The quadrifoils in the second group (Christ the Almighty with the Saints — the Virgin Hodegetria with the Saints) appeared in Rus’ together with quadrifoils of the first group and were manufactured until the 15th — 16th centuries (with 18 known artefacts). No later than the first half of the 17th century, a model was created for casting one-sided icons, following the pattern on a leaf with the image of Our Lady of Hodegetria (with 9 known specimen); existence of this model had been traced until late 19th century.

Keywords: Ancient Rus, copper casting, cult objects, quadripholes, chest crosses-relics (encolpions)

Information about author:

Anna Peskova
(Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation). Candidate of Historical Sciences. Institute for the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Dvortsovaya Emb., 18, Saint Petersburg, 191186, Russian Federation
E-mail: [email protected]

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