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Stratum plus. 2018. №2

N. V. Ryndina (Moscow, Russian Federation), A. D. Degtyareva (Tyumen, Russian Federation)

Non-ferrous Metal of the Yamnaya Cultural-Historical Area from Sites of Ukraine: morphology and production technology

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Pages: 317-346

Data of an analytical study of non-ferrous metal of the Yamnaya cultural-historical area of Ukraine are generalized by methods of the spectral analysis, x-ray microanalysis and metallographic analysis. The received results confirmed by morphological and typological characteristics of tools allowed us to classify the North Black Sea center of metal production as metalworking with the leading western Balkan-Carpathian direction of metallurgical contacts. During the Early Bronze Age a new model of organization of metal production appeared which persisted until the end of the Middle Bronze Age and is characterized by the use of low-alloyed arsenical bronze, forge and, in smaller degree, foundry techniques of tools production in the steppe zone of Eastern Europe. Skills and manufacturing techniques of the tools were determined by composition of availability of the initial raw material, i. e. arsenical bronze, to the craftsmen. Metal production demonstrates almost full unification and standardization of making tools and jewelry of low-alloyed arsenical bronze during shape-forming forging, to a lesser extent, using foundry techniques in unilateral molds with subsequent manufacturing of an item by heating it to 400—500°C. There were metallurgical communications of Yamnaya tribes of the Northern Black Sea coast with the synchronous Corded Ware Cultures, which, in particular, is manifested in distribution of Yamnaya tools on the sites of the Corded Ware Cultures and in possible acquisition of tin-arsenic alloys in the form of ingots from the Central European area.

Keywords: North Black Sea region, Ukraine, Early Bronze Age, Yamnaya (Pit-grave) culture, ancient metal production, metallographic analysis

Information about authors:

Natalia Ryndina
(Moscow, Russian Federation). Doctor of Historical Sciences. M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University. Lomonosov Ave., 27/4, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
E-mail: [email protected]
Anna Degtyareva (Tyumen, Russian Federation). Candidate of Historical Sciences. Tyumen Scientific Centre , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Malygin St., 86, Tyumen, 625026, Russian Federation
E-mail: [email protected]

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