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Stratum plus. 1999. № 2

Kutimov Yu. G. (St.-Petersburg, Russia)

Cultural attribute the Late Bronze age’s steppe pottery of southern regions of the Middle Asia (Turkmenistan)

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Pages: 314-322

For the first time the steppe type pottery was found in Turkmenia in 1904 owing to archaeological explorations of american expedition under direction of R.Pumpelly in the time of excavations of Anau settlement (Pumpelly, 1908, p. 143, pl.. XV: 7 – 9). It were done much discoveries since then, and at present the finds of steppe pottery are widely known on the many monuments of diverse districts of Turkmenistan. The investigators, leaning upon a scientific ideas about cultural communities of the steppe zone of Eurasia, usually related that pottery with one of archaeological cultures of the Late Bronze age – Andronovo, Srubnaya (Timber – Frame) or Tazabagyab. Such definition of cultural bonds in the past years’ researches had not enough distinct explanation for it was without precise demarcation of andronovo, srubnaya and tazabagyab traditions of making clay pottery. Thereby the steppe type pottery of Turkmenistan haven’t in the scientific publications defenite and intelligible typical status, more, the investigators often incorrectly used combinative cultural terms: srubnaya – andronovo, andronovo – tazabagyab, or even srubnaya – andronovo – tasabagyab. That’s why a majority preceding research conclusions are requred now considerable correction. At present we are possesed of a rich archaeological material about of the Late Bronze age’s steppe communities of Eurasia that gives archaeologists the possibility essentially to revise the order their development. Andronovo culture isn’t already the indivisible whole, it is divided into the several chronological stages and each of them has definite cultural traits; the chronology of Srubnaya culture was seriously reconsidered; thanks to working of archaeologists were distinguished the new post – srubnaya and post – andronovo complexes. All given scientific achievements allowed to approach to the analysis of the Late Bronze age’s steppe type pottery of Turkmenistan with new positions and to correct existent ideas about its cultural attribute. The results of fulfilled comparative analysis of steppe type pottery of Turkmenistan allowed to draw following conclusions: 

1) There are two various regions of spreading of the steppe pottery in Turkmenia:
a) north – western and southern Turkmenia (including foothill zone of Kopet Dagh), where principal part of steppe type pottery applies to sargarino – alekseevo cultural tradition (XII – XI centuries B.C.);
b) south – eastern Turkmenia (district of the Murgab delta), where was found pottery of srubnaya, alakul and tazabagyab cultures (common date is XVII – XIV centuries B.C.).
2) The Late Bronze age’s steppe pottery of Turkmenistan dosn’t represent a uniform composition: srubnaya, andronovo or tazabagyab. It is possible to localize here a different cultural complexes: srubnaya, alakul, tazabagyab and sargarino – alekseevo. The appearance of these complexes in the southern regions of the Middle Asia applies to the diverse chronological stage of existence of steppe communities of Eurasia.


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