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Stratum plus. 1999. № 1

Covalenco S. I., Chetraru N. A. (Kishinev, Moldova)

Some peculiarities of the development of the Upper Palaeolithic industries in the Dniester region of Moldova

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Pages: 168-195

The comparison and analysis of the data, accumulated by now in respect of the Upper Palaeolithic sites of the Moldavian Dniester area permit considering the process of cultural and historical development in this area on the basis of the contacts be tween two large technological and typological formations, represented by the Aurignacian and Gravettian technocomplexes. Inside the former one it is outlined the cultural and genetic continuity from the Lower Dniester archaeological culture (Climautsi I, Zelyony Khutor I and II) along two lines: from Climautsi I to the lower and then to upper layer of Climautsi II, continue in Rashkov VIII and VII, and from Zelyony Khutor II to Kamenka, Usatovo and Calfa. The loss of the cultural specific character by the early sites at the middle stage of the development (Climautsi II) is due to the influence of the carriers of Molodova`cultural traditions, forced to migrate under the circumstances of the increasing stadial fall of temperature. The penetration of the representatives from the Central European circle of the Sagaydak type sites into the zone of Southern Russian steppes is observed by the end of the Early Ostashkovo period. In the Dniester area the alien Aurignacian traditions are superimposed on the local industry, that functions within the frames of the same technocomplex. This process results in the formation of the original Rashkov culture with a developed Aurignacian tool set. The different line of the Upper Palaeolithic development in the Dniester zone is reflected in the materials from the sites of Gravettian technocomplex. The earliest from them probably proceed the coldest stage of the Ostashkovo Glacial period. The decrease in number of the well-known sites in the Molodova archaeological culture area and the presumed outgoing of the population to the Southern part of the Middle Dniester area and to the valleys of the rivers Reut, Ikel and other tributaries of the Lower Dniester are observed by the beginning of this period. The migration of the carriers of Molodova cultural tradition was reflected in the inadequate reproduction of its peculiar features. It is confirmed by the insignificant cultural character by defining the sites of the Iorjnitsi, Cureshnitsi, Ciutuleshti, Reci and other types. A number of features, inherited from the Molodova community are met with the Cosoutsi cultural variety, that was under the strong influence of the Anetovo cultural tradition carriers at the stages of its formation and successive development. The continuation of the Gravettian traditions can be reflected in the peculiar character of the Late Molodova culture, whose perception variability embraces the sites of Vadu-Rashkov, Ataki I and II, that are close this culture.

Information about authors:

Covalenco Serghei (Kishinev, Moldova). Doctor of history. Cultural Heritage Institute, Moldova Academy of Sciences
E-mail: [email protected]
Chetraru Nikolai (Kishinev, Moldova). Doctor of history. Cultural Heritage Institute, Moldova Academy of Sciences

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