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Stratum Plus. 2000. № 1

N. P. Olenkowski (Cherson, Ukraine)

Central European Epi-Gravettian and Eastern Gravettian Cultures of the Ukraine

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Pages: 368-377

A study of problems of «Eastern Gravettian», understanding its essence and ways of development is very complicated and equivocal in nature. During the last decades the researchers of the Palaeolithic focused upon its various aspects. Thus, after A.N. Rogachev’s discoveries, a rather significant retreat of many Soviet experts from the earlier predominant stage theory was marked in 1950s. Already by 70s, this process had enabled understanding specific nature of Eastern Gravettian Late Palaeolithic not only compared to the West European but also Central European sites. The only exception was Kostenki-Avdeev culture. The nineties saw a retreat from some dogmas of Soviet Palaeolithic study among some Ukrainian and Moldavian archaeologists. Particularly, the works of N.P. Olenkowski, I.A. Borziak, D.Yu. Nuzhnyi focused especially upon definition of the sense and meaning of such concepts as «Gravettian way of development», «Eastern Gravettian», «Epi-Gravettian». These phenomena are regarded both in technical and technological perspective (D.Yu. Nuzhnyi) and historical and cultural (N.P. Olenkowski), which, in its turn, raises a question of criteria for distinguishing «archaeological cultures». The analysis of stone items has classified, so far, as Ukrainian Epi-Gravettian the following cultures: Dniester-Wolyn (5-4 layers of Kormani IV, 5-4 layers of Molodova V, Dolishni Ivachiv I, 5-4 layers at Lipa VI, layer 4 at Vladimirovka), Anetovka (Anetovka II), Akkarzha (Bolshaya Akkarzha), Lower Dniester (Kamenka, Usatovo), Lower Dnieper (Dmitrovka, Lyubimovka III, Solone Ozero VI, Pidporijnyi II, layer 5 at Osokorovka I, layer I at Vorona III), Desna (Chulatovo I and II, Minievski Yar, Bugorok), North Azov (Fedorovka, Cashtaeva Balka, Caystrova Balka VI, Capustyana Balka, Lysaia Gora), Upper Siureni (upper layers of Siureni I grotto, Late Palaeolithic layer of Adji-Koba I cave), Mezhirich (Gontsy, Dobravnichevka, Semionovka I-III, Mejirichi, Fastov, Gorbulev).

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