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Stratum plus. 2019. No6

V. P. Kirilko (Simferopol, Crimea)

Chronicles in Stone from Kalamita-Inkerman

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Pages: 263-293

The first defense structure of Kalamita was a Byzantine fortress of 550—650: it protected the passage to the Heraclean Peninsula. Not earlier than 1422 and as late as the end of 1423, most likely in spring or summer of 1423, its early medieval debris was used for building a new fortification in its place. The new structure belonged to a ruler of Theodoro who started a war against Caffa. In October-November 1423, the defense structures of Kalamita were massively damaged by a 9-degree Yalta earthquake and restored in 1425—1427. In 1434, Kalamita was burnt down by a Genoese punitive expedition led by Carlo Lomellini. Further restoration works aimed to erect a stone wall to defend the suburb. The fortifications of the Theodoro fortress were substantially reconstructed within 1450—1475, with the support of the Genoese authorities. In 1475—1771, Kalamita belonged to the Ottomans, who at the end of the 16th century (the earliest), but, most likely in the 17th — early 18th century, added two new fortifications to the fortress: wallgang and glacis.

Keywords: Crimea, Caffa, Theodoro, Chorgun, medieval architecture, Genovese fortifications, fortress, periodization of construction

Information about author:

Vladimir Kirilko
(Simferopol, Crimea). Candidate of Historical Sciences. Institute of Archaeology of Crimea of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Academician Vernadsky Ave., 2, Simferopol, 295007, Crimea
E-mail: [email protected]

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