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Dubossary barrows. Summury

Chetraru N.A., Sinika V.S., Razumov S.N., Telnov N.P.

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Pages: 237-238

Detailed analysis of all archaeological material from Dubossary barrows allows us to identify the following cultural and chronological horizons.
The earliest is the Chalcolithic, which includes two burials from barrow no. 9 (Pogrebya). If their ethno-cultural attribution stirs different opinions among the researchers, then the issue of their dating is almost indisputable: they are dated to the late Eneolithic.
Yamnaya cultural-historical community is represented by 68 funeral complexes from 21 barrows. Specific features of their funeral practice and inventory suggest that these complexes are natural considered within the limits of Budzhak group of sites or Budzhak Culture of the Yamnaya cultural-historical community.
In connection with the conservatism of the funeral rite and a small amount of expressive inventory, it is very difficult to divide Yamnaya burials from Dubossary barrows into periods within III Millennium BC. We can only note that such features as presence of barrow architecture, ditches and cromlechs, which are traditionally inherent to the Eneolithic era, are signs of early stage of Budzhak culture, dating from the first half of III Millennium BC.
Burials of Catacomb cultural-historical community are represented by five complexes from Dubossary region. Judging by the funeral rite and inventory, most of them, if not all, belong to Ingul Culture. A series of radiocarbon dates for the Ingul Culture burials of the region as a whole fit into the second half of III Millennium BC.
Thirty burial complexes from 14 barrows, as well as one, sunk in the southern border of a natural hill, are attributed to the end of Middle – Late Bronze Age (first - third quarter of II Millennium BC). Funeral practice and inventory indicate that a significant part of these burials can be attributed to Babino cultural-historical community.
Many burials without inventory from the North-West Black Sea littoral with the skeleton position orientated mainly in the eastern sector in a strong crouched pose on the side most likely have to be related to the Sabatinovka Culture (Dergachyov, 1986, 124).
One burial (Pogrebya 3/1) from Dubossary barrows refers to Belozyorka Culture. This complex was the cenotaph and is dated to the second half of 12th – early 11th century BC.
Scythian Culture is represented by 28 barrow complexes, which is typical for the majority of Scythian burials from the North-West Black Sea littoral.
Noteworthy is widespread and dominant cremation ritual as a mode of burial in Dubossary barrows that finds no analogies in any Scythian burial cemeteries in the steppes of the North Black Sea littoral.
The burning of the barrow mounds represents remains of burial constructions – burned wooden rectangular tombs, constructed of logs and twigs. Such constructions were used by steppe Scythians in North-West Black Sea littoral in 6th – 4th centuries BC and, obviously, gave way to inhumation ritual in the tombs only in the 4th century BC.
Funeral constructions and ritual of Scythian burials performed by the inhumation rite in the Dubossary barrows find many parallels in the North Black Sea littoral. Composition of the accompanying inventory also does not differ. Analysis of the chronological indicators showed that the Scythian burials from the Dubossary barrows break up into two unequal in quantity groups – 6th century BC (only three complexes) and 4th c. BC (majority, if not all other).
Two complexes were Sarmatian, which were the main and only in the barrows near Doybany-2 village. Most likely they date to 1st c. BC – first half of 2nd c. AD.
Almost all of the 14 late nomad complexes contained practically no inventory. In connection with the burial arrangements, the contours of funeral constructions were not traced. All these factors lead us only to some most general conclusions about their ethno-cultural identity and dating.
Besides, ethno-cultural definition of five burials was not possible because they were severely damaged by ploughing.
In conclusion, we have to underline that this complete publication of the materials from the barrows, investigated in Dubossary region, and their detailed analysis for each of the periods allows us to clarify many questions related to the study of cultures from the Eneolithic to the Late Middle Age in the Dniester area, and make more reliable conclusions about difficult problems of ethnic and cultural development of the region in ancient times and in the Middle Ages.

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